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  • Oliviero Beha

    In italia meno figli e sempre piu’ tardi

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    da Ansa.itLe donne italiane fanno sempre meno figli, ne desiderano al massimo due e li vogliono dopo aver completato gli studi e trovato lavoro. Con il risultato che l'età media in cui si diventa mamme nel nostro Paese è salita fino a 29 anni. E se crescono l'utilizzo del part time o dei congedi parentali, la necessità di lavorare porta a utilizzare sempre più i nonni (52,3%) come soluzione per affidare i piccoli (1-2 anni), anche perché gli asili nido sono presenti in modo discontinuo sul territorio, in particolare con differenze tra il Nord e il centro, e il Sud del Paese.

    E’ l’analisi che l’Istat fa nel suo rapporto “Essere madri in Italia”, frutto di una indagine condotta nel 2005 su un campione di circa 50 mila madri di bambini nati nel 2003 (il 10% del totale). Il rapporto evidenzia anche uno squilibrio legato al lavoro in casa: il 63% delle madri occupate ha dichiarato di non ricevere alcun aiuto per i lavori in casa, il 52% di chi è aiutata lo è da una collaboratrice domestica, mentre solo il 17% lo è dal partner. Nel nostro Paese nascono in media 1,33 figli per ogni donna in età feconda “uno dei livelli più bassi di fecondità osservato nei paesi sviluppati, ed è il risultato di una progressiva diminuzione delle nascite che è in atto da circa un secolo”. Tenendo anche presente che l’inversione che si è avuta dalla seconda metà degli anni Novanta è legata alla presenza sempre più numerosa di famiglie immigrate. Per quanto riguarda gli aiuti alla mamma, il 52,3% dei bambini di 1-2 anni sono affidati ai nonni quando la donna lavora. La percentuale sale al nord (56,9% nel nord-ovest, 53,1% nel nord-est), cala al centro (50,5%) e al sud e nelle isole (49,2% e 44,3%). L’asilo pubblico è frequentato dal 13,5% dei bambini mentre il 14,3% va a un asilo privato. Il 9,2% è invece affidato a una baby sitter e il 7,3% è accudito dagli stessi genitori. Rispetto al 2002, l’Istat rileva un lieve incremento della percentuale di bambini che frequentano un asilo nido pubblico (+1,3%) e soprattutto privato (3,5%) prevalentemente a discapito dei bambini affidati alla baby sitter (-2%) o accuditi dagli stessi genitori (-1,6%). Diversi i commenti delle parti politiche: se per Donatella Poretti (Rnp), i dati Istat “non sono confortanti” perché le donne “incontrano non poche difficoltà pratiche” a diventare mamme, per Sandra Cioffi (Udeur), “ancora una volta i dati Istat dimostrano che la famiglia, in questo caso i nonni, è sempre la struttura portante della società. Rimane però anche il dato che è essenziale incrementare i servizi socio educativi per la prima infanzia”.

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