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    Home > articoli > Antitrust: nel mirino nove compagnie per possibile car...
    23
    gen.
    2007

    Antitrust: nel mirino nove compagnie per possibile cartello

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    L'Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato ha avviato un'istruttoria per possibile intesa restrittiva della concorrenza nei confronti di nove compagnie petrolifere. Secondo l'Autorità "Eni, Esso Italiana, Kuwait Petroleum Italia, Shell Italia, Tamoil Italia, Total Italia, Erg Petroli, Ip e Api, quantomeno a partire dalla fine del 2004, avrebbero posto in essere meccanismi collusivi nella determinazione del prezzo consigliato dei carburanti alla distribuzione, attraverso continui scambi di informazioni.

    Le società petrolifere avrebbero in sostanza concordato la fissazione dei prezzi consigliati, che risultano di conseguenza aver avuto ed avere un andamento parallelo, con variazioni contestuali, di entità comparabile e di segno omogeneo, in violazione della normativa a tutela della concorrenza”. Secondo l’Autorità il mercato della distribuzione dei carburanti è caratterizzato da un equilibrio non concorrenziale, con rilevanti barriere all’ingresso che occorre rimuovere, come indicato nella recente segnalazione inviata a Governo, Parlamento e Regioni. “In un contesto posto al riparo dalla concorrenza, si legge dalla nota dell’autorità, a partire dalla fine del 2004, inoltre, i prezzi di benzina e gasolio in Italia sono stati pilotati in modo da rispondere all’evoluzione strutturale del settore (calo del consumo di benzina e aumento di quello del gasolio), trasferendo il maggior margine lordo (e il maggior stacco dalla media UE) dalla benzina al gasolio. Il risultato è che i prezzi e margini lordi dei carburanti in rete sono in Italia più elevati che all’estero.
    Secondo l’istruttoria dell’Antitrust, avviata anche alla luce di una serie di segnalazioni presentate dall’Associazione Nazionale Artigiani e Piccole e Medie Imprese del Trasporto Merci a partire dal 2005, il parallelismo dei prezzi consigliati, osservato nel tempo, viene attuato con la fissazione del prezzo da parte di Eni, che rappresenta il price-leader, al quale si adeguano i concorrenti. Dall’ottobre 2004 proprio l’Eni ha iniziato a utilizzare un nuovo metodo, meno legato all’andamento del costo della materia prima (cd. “quotazioni Platts”). I concorrenti, anziché continuare a fondare le proprie politiche di prezzo sui criteri seguiti fino ad allora, hanno scelto di adeguarsi ai movimenti di ENI, adottando prontamente il nuovo criterio.
    Il parallelismo dei prezzi – continua la nota – è stato inoltre garantito negli anni dallo scambio di informazioni, che avviene attraverso svariati canali. Una certa trasparenza dei prezzi consigliati, che favorisce la collusione, è generata dallo stesso operato del Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico, che pubblica i prezzi consigliati-base delle singole società petrolifere sul proprio sito internet, sulla base dei criteri definiti dalla Cabina di Monitoraggio del mercato petrolifero operante presso il Ministero stesso. Proprio per questo nella recente segnalazione l’Autorità ha chiesto al Governo e al Parlamento di rivedere il funzionamento della Cabina di Monitoraggio nella quale peraltro sono rappresentati sia le compagnie petrolifere che gli esercenti.In ogni caso le imprese ricorrono anche all’annuncio dei propri prezzi consigliati-base alla stampa, attraverso comunicati. Forniscono inoltre ad almeno una rivista specializzata dettagliate informazioni sui propri differenziali integrativi, cioè su una componente del prezzo consigliato che non risulta esser in alcun modo reperibile sul sito del Ministero o presso altre fonti pubbliche. Le parti sono così in grado di conoscere tutte le componenti del prezzo consigliato, monitorando efficacemente il reciproco comportamento.
    L’istruttoria dovrà concludersi entro il 31 marzo 2008.Fonte: HelpConsumatori.it

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